Yoga Sutra 2.41 fitness for vision of the self

Sūtra II.41 Purity of mind-sattva, cheerfulness, one-pointedness, conquest of the senses, and fitness for vision of the self The words ‘There arise’ should be supplied at the beginning of the sūtra. There arises purity of mind-sattva, and from that arises cheerfulness; from that, one-pointedness; from that, conquest of the senses; and from that, fitness of mind-sattva for vision of the self which thus is attained from firmness in purity. What else happens? There arise purity of mind-sattva, cheerfulness, one-pointedness, conquest of the senses, and fitness for vision of the self. As each earlier one becomes firm, the succeeding one appears. From purity there arises purity of mind-sattva, and from that arises cheerfulness; from that, one-pointedness; from that, conquest of the senses; and from that, fitness of mind-sattva for vision of the self It is all attained from firmness in purity, and it is this which is the perfection of purity.

Yoga Sutra 2.42 from contentment, attainment of unsurpassed happiness

Sūtra II.42 From contentment, attainment of unsurpassed happiness So it is said: ‘Whatever sex pleasure there may be in the world, whatever supreme happiness may be enjoyed in heaven, they cannot be accounted a sixteenth part of the happiness of destruction of craving.’ (From a Pūrāṇa – Madhusudana) So it is said: ‘Whatever sex pleasure there may be here and now in the world; whatever supreme happiness may be that of gods and others in heaven, they are not to be compared with a sixteenth part of the happiness of destruction of craving.’

Yoga Sutra 2.43 from destruction of impurity by tapas, perfection of body and senses

Sūtra II.43 From destruction of impurity by tapas, perfection of body and senses As tapas becomes complete, it destroys the veiling taint of impurity; when the veiling taint is removed, there are perfections of the body like the ability to become minute, and perfection of the senses in such forms as hearing and seeing things which are remote. From destruction of impurity by tapas, perfection of the body and senses. As tapas becomes complete, it destroys the veiling taint of impurity. The sense is that some particular practice of tapas has been perfected. When the taint (mala) of that covering is removed, there are perfections of the body like the ability to become minute (aṇimā). The taints (mala) of the physical body, born of the conjugation of mother and father, of seed and womb and food, etc., are entirely removed by tapas. Thereby comes perfection of the body in such …

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Yoga Sutra 2.44 from self-study, communion with the deity of his devotion

Sūtra II.44 From self-study, communion with the deity of his devotion Gods, sages, and perfect beings to whom he is devoted come before the vision of the man intent on study of the self and give him their help. Gods, sages, and perfect beings to whom he is devoted come to the vision of the man intent on study of the self and give him their help, in such ways as teaching.

Yoga Sutra 2.45 from devotion to the Lord, perfection in samādhi

Sūtra II.45 From devotion to the Lord, perfection in samādhi The samādhi of one who has devoted his whole being to the Lord, is perfect. By this he knows unerringly whatever he desires, even in other places and times and bodies. The knowledge from that knows the thing as it really is. From devotion to the Lord, perfection in samādhi. The samādhi of one who has devoted his whole being to the Lord, is perfect. By this perfection in samādhi he knows unerringly whatever he desires. His knowledge (prajñā) knows the thing as it is (yathābhūta), even in other places and times and bodies. Having set out the restraints and observances, with their perfections, we go on to posture and the further steps.

Yoga Sutra 2.46 Posture is to be firm and pleasant

Sūtra II.46 Posture is to be firm and pleasant (Postures) such as the Lotus, the Auspicious, the Hero, the Svastika, the Staff the Support, the Throne, the Curlew, the Elephant, the Camel, the Confirmed, the Favourite, and others. Having set out the restraints and observances, with their perfections, we go on to posture and the further steps. Posture is to be firm and pleasant. It is to be both firm and pleasant. Let him practise a posture in which, when established, his mind and limbs will become firm, and which does not cause pain. Let it be a posture such as the Lotus posture; he will go on to give the names of postures well-known from other authoritative works (śāstra). (First) let him go to a pure place, such as a cave in a holy mountain or an islet in a river, but not right beside a fire or running …

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Yoga Sutra 2.47 samadhi (samapatti) on infinity

Sūtra II.47 By relaxing effort and by samādhi (samāpatti) on infinity The words ‘it comes about’ are to be supplied at the beginning of the sūtra. By withdrawal of effort, a posture is perfected, in which the limbs do not shift. Or when the mind is in samādhi on the infinite, the posture is perfected. Now methods of mastering the posture are given. By relaxing effort and by samādhi (samāpatti) on infinity – the words ‘it comes about’ are to be supplied. The corollary is that the posture becomes completely firm. By withdrawal of effort after getting locked into position, or (when it is familiar) by not exerting effort at all; by this withdrawal of effort a posture is perfected in which the limbs do not shift, for it is effort that disturbs the limbs. So the posture thus becomes unmoving. Or by samādhi (samāpatti) on infinity. The universe is …

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Yoga Sutra 2.49 cut off the flow of in-breath and out-breath

Sūtra II.49 Prānāyāma is to sit in the posture and cut off the flow of in-breath and out-breath The posture has been mastered. Now when he inhales outside air, it is called the in-breath (śvāsa); when he exhales the air from within, that is the out-breath (praśvāsa). Cutting off the flow of these two, so that they both cease, is prāṇāyāma. He is now ready for prāṇāyāma. Prāṇāyāma is to sit in the posture and cut off the flow of in-breath and out-breath. When sitting in that posture made quite firm, he inhales outside air, it is called the in-breath (śvāsa). As water is sucked up through a tube by a continuous action, so by a continuous action through the two tubes of the nostrils, the external air is drawn in, in association with the downward-going current (apāna), and this drawing in is called the in-breath. Then when he exhales …

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Yoga Sutra 2.50 the fixating operations become long and fine

Sūtra II.50 The external, internal, and fixating operations, practised in terms of place, of time and of number, become long and fine Of these, stopping the flow after (a full) inhalation is the external; next, stopping the flow after (a full) exhalation is the internal. The third is the operation of fixation, not preceded by either of the other two, and effected by a single effort. As water thrown on a heated stone shrivels up on every side, so the flow of both ceases simultaneously. All three are practised in terms of place – by how far the field of each extends; in terms of time – how many moments each can be maintained; and in terms of number – how many inhalations and exhalations it takes till the first upstroke, and when that has been achieved, how many more till the second, and similarly how many more till the …

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Yoga Sutra 2.51 the fourth pranayama

Sūtra II.51 The fourth prāṇāyāma comes when both external and internal fields have been felt into The field of the external operation, as measured in terms of place, time, and number, has been practised and felt into. (The second prāṇāyāma) was practice in feeling into the field of the internal operation, as measured similarly. In both practices, the breath became long and fine. The fourth prāṇāyāma comes after the stages (mild, medium and intense) of these two practices have been gradually mastered, and it consists of cessation of both the operations. Whereas the third prāṇāyāma was stopping the breath without having previously brought to awareness the fields (of external and internal objects), the breath becoming long and fine simply by this practice according to place, time, and number; but the cessation in the fourth one comes only after having already brought to awareness those fields, feeling into them by gradually …

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Yoga Sutra 2.52 it destroys the karma which covers up Knowledge-of-the-difference

Sūtra II.52 Thereby is destroyed the covering of the light It destroys the karma which covers up Knowledge-of-the-difference in the yogin who has not practised prāṇāyāma. As it is declared: ‘When the ever-bright sattva is covered over by Indra’s net of great illusion, one is impelled to what is not to be done.’ By the power of prāṇāyāma, the light-veiling karma binding him to the world becomes powerless, and moment by moment is destroyed. So it has been said: ‘There is no tapas higher than prāṇāyāma; from it come purification from taints and the light of Knowledge.’ Thereby is destroyed the covering of the light. It is karma by which the light is covered. In the yogin who has not practised prāṇāyāma, the Knowledge-of-the-difference is covered by karma which covers up Knowledge-of-the-difference. It is declared in another scripture that when the ever-bright sattva is covered over by Indra’s net of …

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Yoga Sutra 2.53 fitness of the mind for concentrations

Sūtra II.53 Fitness of the mind for concentrations Furthermore, simply from the practice of prāṇāyāma (comes fitness for concentrations). For it was said: ‘Or by expulsion and retention of prāṇa.’ And there is something else from prāṇāyāma practice: Simply from the practice of prāṇāyāma comes fitness of the mind for concentrations which are to be explained. As has been said (sūtra I.34): ‘By expulsion and retention of prāṇa’ – from these two, steadiness of the mind is attained. Now what is dissociation?

Yoga Sutra 2.54 the senses assume as it were the nature of mind itself

Sūtra II.54 Dissociation is when the senses, disjoined from their respective objects, assume as it were the nature of mind itself When there is no conjunction with their respective objects, they assume as it were the nature of mind itself. When mind is inhibited, the senses are inhibited like the mind, without needing any other means for their subjection. As when the royal bee rises, the swarm rises, and when it settles they settle, so when the mind is inhibited the senses are inhibited. This is dissociation. Now what is dissociation (pratyāhāra)? He introduces the exposition by way of a question. It is withdrawing the senses from their respective objects which is (the true pratyāhāra) among all the others. Next are given its characteristics: Dissociation is when the senses, disjoined from their respective objects, assume as it were the nature of mind itself The word respective refers to the particular …

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Yoga Sutra 2.55 supreme mastery of the senses

Sūtra II.55 From that, supreme mastery of the senses. With this sūtra ends the Second Part, on Means, of the Yoga Sūtra-s composed by the great ṛṣi Holy Patañjali Some hold that conquest of the senses means not being addicted to sound or other objects. Addiction (vy-asana) is attachment, in the sense that it impels (as-) him away (vy-)from his highest good. Such is addiction. Some think that conquest of the senses means acceptance of what is not forbidden; it is approved sense-contact with the objects according to his own will. Others again say that conquest of the senses is to experience objects without desire or aversion, and void of pleasure or pain. Jaigīṣavya holds that sense mastery is only the nonperception of objects resulting from one-pointedness. This mastery is the highest. When mind is inhibited, senses are inhibited; unlike the other conquests of the senses, yogins having practised this, …

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Shankara on the Yoga Sutras Third Part: Glory

Third Part: GLORY (Vyāsa bhāṣya:) The five outer methods of the means have been explained. Now dhāraṇā (concentration) is to be spoken of. (Śaṅkara vivaraṇa:) The five outer methods of the means to the cognitive (samprajñāta) yoga have been explained. Now the triad of dhāraṇā (concentration), dhyāna (meditation), and samādhi, the inner methods to that end, is explained. There is a division between inner method and outer method, and so the previous Part, the Part of the Means, was concluded with explanation of the outer methods. The triad of inner methods is now given separately from that, to preserve their unity. Presenting the inner methods as means immediately after explanation of the outer ones makes clear the connection of the Parts. Now in this Part the main topic is the glories, and therefore a new and separate Part is begun; the reason for the title is thus explained. Dhāraṇā is …

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Yoga Sutra 3.01 dharana is binding the mind to a place

Sūtra III.1 Dhāraṇā is binding the mind to a place Dhāraṇā is binding the mind to a place. It is binding the mind, as a purely mental process, to the navel circle, the heart lotus, the light in the head, the tip of the nose, the tip of the tongue, and other such locations; and to external objects. Dhāraṇā (concentration) is binding the mind to one place. Binding to one place means binding it there, and it is the mind that is to be bound. The commentator gives details, binding to the navel circle all the vital currents meet there in the form of a circle, so it is called the circle of the navel. On the form of the heart lotus, the light in the head. The door of the nāḍī nerve-channel of the head is radiant, and so it is called a light. To the tip of the …

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Yoga Sutra 3.02 meditation is continuity of the idea of the meditation

Sūtra III.2 Continuity of the mind there is dhyāna (meditation) Meditation is continuity of the idea of the meditation-object in that place – a stream of similar ideas untouched by any other idea. Continuity of the idea in that place is meditation, in that place; for instance the navel circle and the other objects of dhāraṇā. continuity of the idea of the meditation-object, such as the place previously selected for meditation, means a stream of similar ideas, a stream of like ideas as a unity, a continuity of ideas untouched not disturbed by any other idea of opposite kind. That is dhyāna. Whereas dhāraṇā is touched by other ideas imagined about the object, even though the mind has been settled on that object of meditation alone – if made on the sun, its orbit and extreme brilliance are also the object of the concentration, for the mind is functioning on …

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Yoga Sutra 3.03 it comes to shine forth as the object alone

Sūtra III.3 That same (meditation – dhyāna), when it comes to shine forth as the object alone, apparently empty of its own nature as knowledge, is called samādhi That same (dhyāna), when it comes to shine forth in the form of the meditation-object alone, apparently empty of its own nature as an idea, and having entered the being of the meditation-object, becomes it – is called samādhi. That same, when it comes to shine forth as the object alone, apparently empty of its own nature as knowledge, is called samādhi. That same dhyāna, consisting of the idea-stream, having apparently (iva) given up being a stream of one idea comes to shine forth in the form of the meditation-object is radiant as the form of that object, apparently empty of its own nature of itself as an idea as perceiving, just as a clear crystal shines out as the material on …

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Yoga Sutra 3.04 the triad – concentration, meditation, and samadhi

Sūtra III.4 The triad (held) at the one place is saṃyama The triad – concentration, meditation, and samādhi – held at the one place, is called saṃyama. The triple means directed on to a single object is called by the technical name of saṃyama. What has been explained as the triad – concentration (dhāraṇā), meditation (dhyāna), and samādhi, held at the one place brought to completion at a single location, is called saṃyama. So he says: The triple means directed on to a single object is called by the technical name of saṃyama. The triad, thus perfected stage by stage, is for the purposes of this work called by the technical name of saṃyama. In the various passages, when it is a question of grasping something desired to be known, or mastering something desired to be mastered, it is taught that some appropriate saṃyama should be known, and in all …

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Yoga Sutra 3.05 the light of knowledge prajna

Sūtra III.5 From mastery of that, the light of knowledge (prajñā) From mastery of that saṃyama, there comes the light of knowledge. On whatever the saṃyama is set firm, of that very thing the samādhi-knowledge becomes firm. From mastery of that, the light of knowledge. From mastery of that saṃyama from securing firmness in it, there is the power of manifesting the desired object, as if a light were being shone on it, there comes the light of samādhi-knowledge. On whatever the saṃyama is set firm, of that very thing the samādhi-knowledge becomes firm. By that light of samādhi-knowledge, which can illuminate anything even hidden or remote, the yogins see clearly what they have in mind, as if it were set on the palm of their hand.  

Yoga Sutra 3.06 samadhi has to be done by stages

Sūtra III.6 Its application is by stages Its application is by stages. Its application the practice of that samādhi as it has to be done is by stages: external things are taken as objects of the meditation (dhyāna), and then internal things, and then such things as the three-fold changes of which he is going to speak (III. 16). That saṃyama is to be practised by moving on to the next stage only when the first stage has been mastered. For if an early stage is not mastered, but missed out in favour of jumping on to the next stage, he will not attain saṃyama on the later stages at all. And without that, how will the knowledge-light ever arise? (But) for one who has mastered later stages, saṃyama practice on earlier stages such as telepathy would not be right. Why not? Because the purpose will have been attained already …

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Yoga Sutra 3.07 concentration, meditation, and samadhi

Sūtra III.7 Compared to the previous means, this triad is the direct means Compared to the previously given five means beginning with restraints, this triad of concentration, meditation, and samādhi is the direct means to cognitive samādhi Compared to the previous means, this triad is the direct means. Compared to the previously given five means beginning with restraints, this triad of dhāraṇā, dhyāna, and samādhi is the direct means to cognitive samādhi-yoga. In thus calling them the direct (literally, inner) means, he wishes to show that even though the previous ones may not have been perfected, effort should be made at these three.  

Yoga Sutra 3.08 Yoga without the five-fold means of restraints

Sūtra III.8 Even that is an indirect means as regards unseeded (yoga) Even that triple method, though the direct means (to cognitive samādhi), is only an indirect method as regards the unseeded yoga. Why so? Because that comes about also without it. Yoga can be effected even without going through the five-fold means of restraints, etc., from the mere accomplishment of the triad of concentration, meditation, and samādhi, by force of saṃskāra-s accumulated in a previous life, as in the case of the incorporeal gods, and those resolved into prakṛti. But without that triad, yoga is not possible for anyone, because yoga is essentially associated with the operation of concentration and the other two. For the nature of yoga is perfection of the mind. But when knowledge (jñāna) and detachment have been perfected, then there is no concern with concentration and so on. Thus we have cases of those like …

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Yoga Sutra 3.09 extravertive saṃskara is overcome

Sūtra III.9 The inhibitive transformation of the mind is when extravertive saṃskāra is overcome and the saṃskāra of inhibition is predominant, and mind itself is in a temporary state of inhibition The extravertive saṃskāra is a characteristic of the mind: it is not of the nature of an idea. The saṃskāra of inhibition is also a characteristic of the mind itself. Of the two, there are subjection and predominance respectively (in the state of inhibition): extravertive saṃskāra-s are excluded and saṃskāra-s of inhibition are in possession. At the time of inhibition, the mind accords with the subjection and predominance. During the continuance of the change in the saṃskāra-s of the one mind, there is the inhibitive transformation. The inhibitive transformation of the mind is when extravertive saṃskāra is overcome, and saṃskāra of inhibition is predominant, and mind itself is in a temporary state of inhibition, extravertive: going out in various …

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Yoga Sutra 3.10 there comes about a peaceful flow of the mind

Sūtra III.10 It has a peaceful flow, by reason of the saṃskāra-s From habituation of saṃskāra-s of inhibition, there comes about a peaceful flow of the mind. Beginning with the inhibitive saṃskāra, it lasts as long as it is not overcome by a saṃskāra of the character of extraversion. It mind assuming the inhibitive change has a peaceful flow, by reason of the saṃskāra-s. From habituation of saṃskāra-s of inhibition in view of the habituation, the firmness, of the saṃskāra-s of inhibition there comes about a peaceful flow a calmness of the mind. As to how long that peaceful flow lasts, he says: The peaceful flow which begins with the inhibitive saṃskāra lasts as long as it, the inhibitive saṃskāra, is not overcome by a saṃskāra with the character of extraversion: having been produced by extraversion, that saṃskāra will have the character of extraversion. The peaceful flow, however, arises from …

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Yoga Sutra 3.11 the destruction of the mind’s dispersiveness

Sūtra III.11 The destruction of the mind’s dispersiveness, and rise of its one-pointedness, is the samādhi transformation Dispersiveness is a characteristic of mind: one-pointedness also is a characteristic of mind. Destruction means disappearance: the rise of one-pointedness means its appearance. Because they are its characteristics, the mind conforms to each of them, since the mind possesses both the states as its own: it can be concentrated by the passing away (of extraversion) and coming forth (of one-pointedness). This is called the samādhi transformation. Dispersiveness (sarvārthatā) of mind is its multifarious capacity for worldly experiences and also for release, that capacity being a characteristic of mind. It will be said (IV.23): ‘The mind coloured by the seer and the objects of sight has all purposes (sarvārtham).’ one-pointedness also is a characteristic of mind. The sameness of the dying down and the following uprising process of a mind in samādhi is the …

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Yoga Sutra 3.12 transformation of one-pointedness

Sūtra III.12 In that (samādhi) the sameness of the idea which has subsided and the newly risen idea in the mind is its transformation of one-pointedness In the concentrated mind, the earlier idea having subsided, the next idea which rises is similar to it. The mind in samādhi assumes the form of both of them. This is repeated in just the same way till the breaking of the samādhi. Of the mind which possesses that characteristic: this is the transformation of one-pointedness. In that time of samādhi the sameness of the idea which has subsided and the newly risen idea in the mind is its transformation of one-pointedness. In the concentrated mind whose mental process is inhibited from going out the earlier idea subsides is subdued: the next idea which rises appears is the same. The concentrated mind means a mind in the state of samādhi, which is distinguished by …

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Yoga Sutra 3.13 transformations of dharma time-phase

Sūtra III.13 By (analogy with) that, are explained the transformations of dharma, time-phase, and basis (avasthā) in the elements and in the senses That just described mental transformation, in the form of dharma, time-phase and basis, is to be taken as extending to change of dharma, change of time-phase, and change of basis, in the elements and in the senses. By (analogy with) that are explained the transformations of dharma, time-phase, and basis, in the elements and in the senses. That just described mental transformation – of what kind? – in the form of dharma, time-phase, and basis in the form of dharma, in the form of time-phase, and in the form of basis, in the elements and in the senses in physical elements like the earth and in the senses such as hearing where there is no change into a different principle (tattva). Change once recognized in the unsteadiness …

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Yoga Sutra 3.14 indeterminable dharmas is the dharmin

Sūtra III.14 What conforms to the subsided, uprisen, and indeterminable dharma-s is the dharmin The dharma itself is the appropriate particularization of the mere potentiality of the dharmin. This potentiality of the dharmin is the dharma itself. It is inferred as an actual existence from the difference in effects to which it gives rise, one after another in the one (dharmin). Of these, one that is visible is the present, exercising its own special function, and it is distinguished from other dharma-s which are either subsided or indeterminable. But when it accommodates itself to the common basis, being then simply the true nature of the dharmin, what is there to be distinguished, and by what? What, then, is the dharmin? In an enduring basis, with the cessation of one dharma, another rises up, and this is called change. What conforms to the subsided, uprisen, and indeterminable, what is always conforming …

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Yoga Sutra 3.15 difference of sequence causes the differences of the changes

Sūtra III.15 Difference of sequence causes the differences of the changes Difference of sequence causes the differences of the changes. If it is said that there can be only one change in one dharmin (the answer is): difference of sequence causes the differences of the changes. Thus with clay particles, there is the sequence of particle clay, lump clay, jar clay, shard clay, fragment clay. When one dharma follows immediately on another, it is its successor. When it is said that the clay lump is reborn as the jar, that is a sequence of dharma-change. The sequence of change of time-phase is, the jar’s coming into the present from its future state, and the lump’s going from the present to the past. There is no sequence from the past. Why not? Because there is immediate succession only when there is before and after, and there is none in the case …

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Yoga Sutra 3.16 knowledge of what is past and future

Sūtra III.16 From saṃyama on the three changes, knowledge of what is past and future From saṃyama on the changes of dharma, time-phase, and condition, knowledge of past and future things comes to the yogin. When dhāraṇā, dhyāna, and samādhi are made on the same thing, it is called saṃyama. By that, the three changes being directly perceived, there is produced knowledge of things past and future which are in them. From saṃyama on the three changes, knowledge of what is past and future. The saṃyama is to be carried on up to the illumination of samādhi-prajñā. Whatever object it is fixed on, it brings direct perception of that object as it really is. On whatever subtle or concealed or past or future or remote object the saṃyama is made, with the conscious intention to attain it, his purpose brings its fulfilment to the yogin. From saṃyama on the changes …

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Yoga Sutra 3.17 understanding of the cries of all beings

Sūtra III.17 There is confusion from the mutual projection of word, meaning and idea on to each other. From saṃyama on their distinctness (comes) understanding of the cries of all beings Now, another object for saṃyama is presented, directed towards word, meaning, and understanding. There is confusion from the mutual projection of word, meaning, and idea on to each other. From saṃyama on their distinctness, understanding of the cries of all beings is attained. Of these, what is word, and what again are the meaning and the idea? What is the cause of the confusion, and how are they to be distinguished? With regard to these, speech has its function only in (uttering) letter-sounds. Hearing has as its field merely transformations of sound. With regard to these: what can be uttered by speech, and heard by ear, is word. The further point is examined, as to whether it is the …

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Yoga Sutra 3.18 knowledge of previous lives

Sūtra III.18 From direct perception of the saṃskāra-s, knowledge of previous lives From direct perception of the saṃskāra-s, knowledge of previous lives. The saṃskāra-s referred to here are the saṃskāra-groups called vāsanā, caused by memory and taints. The observable bring about fruition as righteousness and unrighteousness: the unobservable are mental dharma-s which have been laid down in previous existences as change, activity, inhibition, power, life, and righteousness. Saṃyama on these (two kinds) has the power to give direct perception of saṃskāra-s. They can never be perceived apart from the place, time, cause, and experience: so it is with those associations that the yogin attains knowledge of previous births from direct perception of saṃskāra-s. This kind of saṃyama can be applied to other living beings also. From direct perception of the saṃskāra-s, knowledge of previous lives. The saṃskāra-s referred to here are the saṃskāra-groups called vāsanā, both observable and unobservable, caused …

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Yoga Sutra 3.19 knowledge of the mind of another

Sūtra III.19 (From direct perception, through saṃyama) of his thought, knowledge of the mind of another From saṃyama on his thought, direct perception of the thought, and from that, knowledge of the mind of another comes about. (From direct perception) of his thought, knowledge of the mind of another. From saṃyama on the thought of the other, direct perception of the thought of that other; with that direct perception knowledge of the mind of another who possesses that thought. (Opponent) But if the ideas of someone else are directly perceived, will it not mean that the yogin will become an enjoyer when that other is happy, and a sufferer when he suffers?

Yoga Sutra 3.20 not the field of the samyama

Sūtra III.20 But not the subject of those ideas, because that was not the field of the saṃyama He knows the idea which has been entertained. He does not know in what sort of subjective state that has been entertained, because that was not the only subject of the yogin’s concentration. It was only the idea that was the subject of the concentration by the yogin’s mind. (Answer) But not the subject of those ideas, because that was not the field of the saṃyama. He the yogin knows the idea which has been entertained. He does not know in what sort of subjective state that idea has been entertained by the other person. He does not know in what subjective state the other person’s idea is held, whether it is happiness or suffering, so that he himself might become an enjoyer or a sufferer. (Opponent) But if he does not …

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Yoga Sutra 3.21 samyama on the form of the body

Sūtra III.21 From saṃyama on the form of the body, its potentiality of being seen is nullified. Being disjoined from the light of the eye, it disappears From saṃyama on the form of the body, its potentiality of being seen is interrupted. When it is thus nullified, the body is disjoined from the light of the eye, and the yogin disappears. Similarly it is implied that he disappears from the field of other sense perceptions such as sound. From saṃyama on the form of the body, its potentiality of being seen is nullified. The form of the body refers to the yogin’s own body, its potentiality of his body of being seen by the eyes of others is nullified, interrupted, is inhibited. As a result, the light of the eye of others is not in contact with the form of the body of the yogin, and the yogin disappears. Similarly …

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Yoga Sutra 3.22 foreknowledge of death

Sūtra III.22 Karma is rapid or slow. From saṃyama on it, or on omens, there comes foreknowledge of death The karma which fructifies as life-span is of two kinds. Just as a wet cloth when spread out would dry in a shorter time, so is the rapid karma. And as the same cloth when screwed up would take a long time to dry, so is the slow. Or as fire in dry grass, with a following breeze, is carried everywhere and burns it up in a very short time, so is the rapid. And as the same fire, brought near to the pile of grass only gradually, would take a long time to burn it up, so is the slow. This karma which determines the length of life in one particular birth is of the two kinds: rapid or slow (in fructifying). Karma is rapid or slow. From saṃyama on …

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Yoga Sutra 3.23 from samyama on friendliness there arise powers

Sūtra III.23 (From saṃyama) on friendliness and the others (compassion and goodwill, sūtra I.33) (there arise) powers (From saṃyama) on friendliness and the others (compassion and goodwill) (there arise) powers. Friendliness, compassion, and goodwill are the three meditations (bhāvanā, sūtra I.33). Of these, he who practises meditation on friendliness towards happy beings obtains the power of friendliness; he who practises meditation on compassion towards the suffering obtains the power of compassion; he who practises meditation on goodwill towards those of virtuous conduct obtains the power of goodwill. (Vivaraṇa repeats without comment.) The samādhi which is produced from the meditation is saṃyama; from that, powers of unbounded energy arise. In regard to the habitually sinful, there is indifference (I.33) but not meditation. There is thus no samādhi on that, and therefore no power from indifference is mentioned, because there is no saṃyama on it. The samādhi which is produced from meditation …

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Yoga Sutra 3.24 powers like the power of an elephant

Sūtra III.24 Powers like the power of an elephant (come from saṃyama) on them From saṃyama on the power of an elephant, there comes to him the power of an elephant; from saṃyama on the power of the king of the birds (Vainateya), there comes to him that power of the king of the birds; from saṃyama on the power of the wind, there comes to him the power of the wind. Similarly in other cases. Powers like the power of an elephant (come from saṃyama) on them. A yogin endowed with the powers from meditation on friendliness, etc., comes to powers like those of an elephant, etc. if he makes saṃyama on them.

Yoga Sutra 3.25 supernormal radiant perception

Sūtra III.25 By projecting the light of supernormal radiant perception (I.36) on to what is subtle, hidden or remote, (he comes to) knowledge of that The supernormal perception referred to is one called Radiant (jyotiṣmatī), and when the yogin projects its light on to something subtle or hidden or remote, he discovers it. The supernormal perception referred to is the one called Radiant, and when the yogin projects focuses its light a ray of it on to something subtle or hidden or remote, he discovers it.

Yoga Sutra 3.26 from samyama on the sun knowledge of the worlds

Sūtra III.26 From saṃyama on the sun, knowledge of the worlds The worlds are listed as seven: (1)The terrestrial world, from the point called Avīci to the summit of Mount Meru; (2)From the summit of Meru up to the Pole Star, being the world of stars called Antarīkṣa or intermediate region; (3)Beyond that, the world of heaven, consisting of five planes beginning with the world of great Indra; then (4)the Great world of Prajāpati, and then the three-fold world of Brahmā, namely: (5)The Jana world (of divine beings), (6)The Tapas world (of power), (7)The Satya world (of truth). They are summarized in the verse. The world of Brahmā three-fold, Below it the Great world of Prajāpati, Then that of great Indra – all this is called heaven. In the sky (intermediate region) are the stars, And on earth, the creatures. From Avīci one after another are six great hells constituted …

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Yoga Sutra 3.27 samyama on the moon

Sūtra III.27 (From saṃyama) on the moon, knowledge of the dispositions of the stars If he makes it on the moon, he will apprehend the dispositions of the stars. (From saṃyama) on the moon, knowledge of the dispositions of the stars. Having come to know the extent of the worlds from saṃyama on the sun, If he then immediately makes it on the moon, he will apprehend the dispositions of the stars. From the sun-saṃyama the knowledge obtained is only of the extent of the worlds – the worlds and rivers and oceans and mountains spread out as described. But how the stars are disposed is not within its range. From the moon-saṃyama, however, there is understanding of the various dispositions of the stars.

Yoga Sutra 3.28 samyama on the Pole Star

Sūtra III.28 (From saṃyama) on the Pole Star, knowledge of their motions Making saṃyama on the Pole Star, he would apprehend the motions of the stars. Then if he made saṃyama on the celestial chariots, he would come to know them. (From saṃyama) on the Pole Star, knowledge of their motions. And thereafter (after making the moon-saṃyama) immediately Making saṃyama on the Pole Star, he will apprehend the motions of the stars – how they converge and how they separate. How at this time this planet is opposed by that one, and how it comes thus to be subdued, and then in that way it rises again – by these means he comes to know, for instance, the good and bad fortune of the living beings. And similarly with other things. If he made saṃyama on the celestial chariots, he would come to know them, their various kinds, and courses, …

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Yoga Sutra 3.29 on the navel circle, knowledge of the plan of the body

Sūtra III.29 On the navel circle, knowledge of the plan of the body By making saṃyama on the navel circle, he apprehends the plan of the body. There are three humours (doṣa, which harm by excess): wind, bile, and phlegm. The corporeal elements (dhātu) are seven: skin, blood, flesh, fat, bone, marrow, and semen; the order of the list is, that each is exterior to the one which it precedes. … wind, bile, and phlegm, and their proportions and their seats, etc. become knowable to him. Then The corporeal elements (dhātu) are seven, in fixed relations of exterior and interior to each other. Skin is outside them all; next within is blood, and then flesh, and then fat, then bone, then marrow, and then semen, which is the most interior of all. The order of the list is, that each is exterior to the one which it precedes. Similarly he …

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Yoga Sutra 3.30 at the pit of the throat, cessation of hunger and thirst

Sūtra III.30 At the pit of the throat, cessation of hunger and thirst At the pit of the throat, cessation of hunger and thirst. Below the tongue is a cord; below the cord is the throat; below the throat is the pit. From saṃyama on it, hunger and thirst do not oppress him. At the pit of the throat, cessation of hunger and thirst. Below the tongue is a cord, visible when the tongue is turned up; below the cord is the throat; below the throat is the pit. From saṃyama on it, hunger and thirst do not oppress him.

Yoga Sutra 3.31 on the tortoise nerve, rigid steadiness

Sūtra III. 31 On the tortoise nerve, rigid steadiness Below the throat-pit, in the chest, is a nerve-channel called the Tortoise. Having made saṃyama on it, he attains a state of rigid steadiness, like that of a snake or lizard (when gripped). Below the throat-pit, in the chest, is a nerve-channel called the Tortoise. Having made saṃyama on it, he attains a state of rigid steadiness, steadiness of the mind, like a snake or lizard which becomes absolutely rigid from being gripped by the neck.

Yoga Sutra 3.32 vision of the perfect ones

Sūtra III.32 On the Light in the head, vision of the perfect ones Within the hollow on the crown of the head there is a radiance (called) the Light. Having made saṃyama on it, there comes about the vision of the perfect ones moving between heaven and earth. On the Light in the head, vision of the perfect ones. Within the hollow on the crown of the head there is a radiance which is accordingly called the Light. From saṃyama on it there comes about the vision of the perfect ones moving between heaven and earth.

Yoga Sutra 3.33 by supernormal knowledge he knows everything

Sūtra III.33 By the prātibha supernormal knowledge too (he knows) everything The supernormal knowledge called prātibha helps the yogin across, it being the first phase of knowledge-born-of-discrimination – like the glow of the sun at dawn. From this too the yogin-s know everything, namely from the rise of the supernormal knowledge called prātibha. By the prātibha supernormal knowledge too (he knows) everything. When the yogin makes saṃyama on the self (ātman), or is supremely devoted to the Lord (īśvara), the knowledge which rises spontaneously in his mind is supernormal and helps him across, it being the first phase of knowledge-born-of-discrimination which is going to be described. like the glow of the sun at dawn: becoming to some extent visible at daybreak as the reddening, when it is about to rise. This is the first phase. From this too the yogin-s know everything, namely from the rise of the supernormal knowledge …

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Yoga Sutra 3.34 on the heart, awareness of the mind

Sūtra III.34 On the heart, awareness of the mind In this city of Brahman is the small lotus which is the palace; in it is the consciousness. From saṃyama on it, awareness of the mind. On the heart, awareness of the mind. In this city of Brahman the body, is the small little lotus, the lump of flesh in the form of a lotus with its head turned down, which is the palace, like a palace in that it is the many-channelled meeting-place of the various nerves. In it is the consciousness (vijñāna) the mind (citta). From saṃyama on it, on the lotus which is strung on the tube that hangs in the lake of the breast, and which is the meeting-place of the life currents (prāṇa), comes awareness of the mind the sattva.  

Yoga Sutra 3.35 knowledge of Purusa comes from what-is-for-the-sake-of-another

Sūtra III.35 Experience is an idea which does not distinguish between sattva and Puruṣa, though they are absolutely separate; by saṃyama on what-is-for-its-own-sake, (distinct) from what-is-for-the-sake-of-another, there comes knowledge of Puruṣa Experience is an idea which does not distinguish between sattva and Puruṣa, though they are absolutely separate; by saṃyama on what-is-for-its-own-sake, (distinct) from what-is-for-the-sake-of-another, there comes knowledge of Puruṣa. Sattva is the mind (citta), Puruṣa is the experiencer (bhoktṛ); of these two which are absolutely separate, of absolutely opposed character and altogether separate existences, an idea which does not distinguish them, which takes them as the same, is experience of Puruṣa. By saṃyama on what-is-for-its-own-sake whose nature is pure consciousness, having distinguished it from what-is-for-the-sake-of-another, from sattva which by the idea of its being Puruṣa has the experience of being identical, comes knowledge of Puruṣa. (Opponent) In what way is the mind-sattva for-the-sake-of-another, so that by making the distinction …

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Yoga Sutra 3.36 supernormal knowledge

Sūtra III.36 From that arise supernormal knowledge and hearing, touch, sight, taste, and awareness of events From supernormal knowledge (prātibha) arises knowledge of what is subtle, hidden, or remote, in the past or future. From supernormal hearing comes hearing of divine sounds: from supernormal touch, he experiences touch of the perfect ones and others. From supernormal sight he perceives divine forms. From supernormal taste he experiences divine savours. From supernormal awareness of events (vārtā), he discovers the truth about worldly matters as they are. From that from samādhi (samādhāna) on what-exists-for-its-own-sake arise supernormal knowledge (prātibha) and hearing, touch, sight, taste, and awareness of events. From prātibha supernormal knowledge from the knowledge in the mind coming out of saṃyama on the self, comes knowledge of what is subtle, hidden or remote, in the past or future. From supernormal hearing comes hearing of divine sounds: from supernormal touch tactile awareness, touch of …

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Yoga Sutra 3.37 obstacles in samadhi but perfections in the extravertive state

Sūtra III.37 They are obstacles in samādhi, but perfections in the extravertive state They – supernormal knowledge and the others – are obstacles when they appear in a mind concentrated. When they appear in a mind extraverted, they are perfections. They are obstacles in samādhi, but perfections in the extraverted state. They – supernormal knowledge and the others – when they appear in a mind concentrated (samāhita) on Puruṣa are obstacles, because they are antagonistic to vision of Puruṣa. When they appear in a mind extraverted, they are perfections: they appear from saṃyama on Puruṣa, but not in a concentrated mind (samāhita citta) which is detached.  

Yoga Sutra 3.38 the mind can enter another body

Sūtra III.38 From loosening of the cause of tying, and awareness of how the mind moves, the mind can enter another body The mind is not (inherently) fixed, being constantly agitated. The point is, that it is held fixed in the body by the ties of its karma-stock. Loosening of that cause-of-tying comes about by force of samādhi; awareness of how the mind moves is from samādhi alone. From the thinning out of the karma-ties, and awareness of how his own mind moves, the yogin draws out the mind from his own body and installs it in other bodies. As his mind flies out, the senses go with it. As the bees swarm after the flying royal bee and settle when it settles, so the senses follow the mind in its entry into another body, and are distributed there. From loosening of the cause of tying, and awareness of how …

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Yoga Sutra 3.39 mastering the upgoing vital current udana

Sūtra III.39 By mastering the upgoing vital current (udāna), he passes untouched over water, mud, thorns and so on, and at death he takes the upward course Life is the operation of the totality of the senses, as prāṇa, etc. Its activity is five-fold. Prāṇa has its operation passing through the nostrils of the face as far as the heart; the samāna life-current, so-called because it evenly (sama) guides (āna), i.e. functions, as far as the navel; apāna is so-called because it guides (āna) down (apa), operating down to the soles of the feet; udāna leads upward (ūrdhvam), having its operation from the soles to the top of the head; pervading all is the vyāna life-current. Of them, prāṇa is the principal one. By mastering the udāna, he passes untouched over water and thorns and so on. Having mastered it, at death he takes the upward course. By mastering the …

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Yoga Sutra 3.40 blazing light

Sūtra III.40 From mastery of samāna, blazing light He who has mastered samāna effects an arousal of the fire and causes a blaze of light. From mastery of samāna, blazing light. He who has mastered samāna effects an arousal of the fire (tejas) of the udāna (sic) fire which has its location in the samāna life-current, and as the performer of the act, the yogin thereby causes his navel to blaze with light.  

Yoga Sutra 3.41 divine hearing

Sūtra III.41 From saṃyama on the relation between hearing and space, divine hearing Space is the basis of hearing and sound. So it has been said: ‘Among hearers similarly placed, what is heard is the same for all.’ That very fact is the mark of space. It is said to be by nature free from obstruction. So it is seen that things with a form are opposites of space, since they are clearly obstructions. A sense of hearing is inferred from the perception of sound; among deaf and the not-deaf one perceives it and the other does not perceive it. Hence sound is the field of the sense of hearing alone. Divine hearing comes into operation in the yogin who has made saṃyama on the relation between hearing and space. From saṃyama on the relation between hearing and space, divine hearing. What is this relation on which the saṃyama is …

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Yoga Sutra 3.42 he travels through space

Sūtra III.42 From saṃyama on the relation between the body and space, followed by identification-in-samādhi (samāpatti) with the lightness of a thread, he travels through space When there is the body, there is space. Its relation to the body is by the fact that it gives that scope to the body. When his saṃyama has mastered the relation between the two, if the yogin then makes identification-in-samādhi with light things, from cotton thread down to the ultimate atoms, he becomes light. He treads upon the waters with his feet, he walks on strands of spiders’ webs, he goes on the sunbeams. Thereafter he takes any course through space as he wills. When there is the body, there is space. The necessarily inherent relation to the body is by the fact that it space gives that scope to the body. When a yogin’s saṃyama has mastered the relation between the two, …

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Yoga Sutra 3.43 the mind functioning outside the body

Sūtra III.43 The Great Bodiless is a mental process (vṛtti) functioning exterior (to the body), and not imaginary; from this comes dwindling away of the covering of the light A process of the mind (functioning) outside the body is the concentration (dhāraṇā) called Bodiless. If it comes to be (functioning) in some outside objects only as a process of a mind (still) wholly fixed in the body, it is called Imaginary Bodiless; but when it is the external process of a mind which has itself become external and unconnected with the body, it is Not-Imaginary. By the Imaginary, they practise for the Not-Imaginary, which is the Great Bodiless. The Great Bodiless is a mental process (vṛtti) exterior (to the body), and not imaginary; from this comes dwindling away of the covering of the light. A process of the mind outside the body, which is produced resting on a definite object …

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Yoga Sutra 3.44 samyama on their physical form

Sūtra III.44 From saṃyama on their physical form, essential nature, subtle form, inherence, and purposefulness: conquest of the elements Here, the earths, having as particulars sound, etc., together with attributes like shape, etc., are defined as physical (sthūla). Each one of the elements (bhūta) is five-fold: physical, essential, subtle, inherent, and with-a-purpose. Here, the earths have as particulars sound, etc.: sound, touch, form, taste, and smell. They are earth because of the operation of the subtle elements (tan-mātra) of the five kinds. together with attributes like shape etc. In regard to the earths, these (attributes) are the shape, etc., which means shape, rough texture, impermeability, saltiness, rigidity, exclusiveness, endurance, dark colour. Then, liquidity, clearness, subtlety, softness, weight, conservation, purification, adsorption, etc., are attributes of the watery. Then the fiery are: rising, consuming, purifying, burning, cooking, lightness, brilliance, etc. Then the gaseous are: transverse motion, purification, impulsion, strength, dispersion, etc. The …

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Yoga Sutra 3.45 becoming minute, and perfection of the body

Sūtra III.45 From it (the saṃyama) manifest a set of eight powers like becoming minute, and perfection of the body, with freedom from impediment for its (bodily) attributes Of these powers, becoming minute is to be like an atom. Lightness – he becomes light; greatness – he becomes great; range – he could touch the moon with a fingertip; irresistible will – he can dive into the solid ground and move about there as if it were water; mastery – by this he can master the elements and elementals, and himself is not mastered by any others; sovereignty – he can will the production, absorption and disposition of them; omnipotence – his purposive idea becomes true, so that whatever that purpose, so the states of the elements and their natures become. Now he describes the effects of saṃyama on himself. From it, manifest a set of eight powers like becoming …

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Yoga Sutra 3.47 conquest of the senses

Sūtra III.47 From saṃyama on their perception, essential nature, I-am-ness, inherence, and purposefulness, (comes) conquest of the senses Sound and the others, comprising both universal and particular, are the sense-objects, and the operation of the senses on those objects is their perception (grahaṇa). The nature of the perception is not the universal aspect alone. If the particular instance (also) of its own object were not apprehended by the sense-organ, how would any object be accurately determined by the mind? From saṃyama on their perception, essential nature, I-am-ness, inherence and purposefulness, (comes) conquest of the senses. All this is to be taken on the same basis as the earlier sūtra (III.44), except that pure I-am-ness is the particular corresponding to the tan-mātra-s in the case of the elements. Sound and the others, comprising both universal and particular, are the sense-objects, and the operation (vṛtti) of the senses on those objects, which …

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Yoga Sutra 3.48 the body can travel with unsurpassable speed

Sūtra III.48 From that, speediness as of the mind, independence of physical organs, and conquest of nature From that (mastery of the senses), the body can travel with unsurpassable speed like that of the mind. Then, the senses can operate independent of a body in regard to any determined place, time and object. Conquest of nature (pradhāna) is mastery of all effects of prakṛti-causes. These three perfections are called Honey-formed, and they are acquired by conquering the five aspects (of the senses). From that, speediness as of the mind, independence of physical organs, and conquest of nature (pradhāna). From that, from mastery of the senses the body can travel with unsurpassable speed like that of the mind, unsurpassable in that nothing can go faster than that. Independence of physical organs means that the senses independent of a body, dissociated from a body, can operate in regard to any determined place …

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Yoga Sutra 3.49 sattva and Purusa are different

Sūtra III.49 Having simply the knowledge that (mind-)sattva and Puruṣa are different, one has omnipotence over all beings and is omniscient One whose mind (buddhi-sattva) has been purified of the taint of rajas and tamas so that he is now in the highest purity and in the consciousness of mastery, firmly set simply in the knowledge that sattva and Puruṣa are different, has omnipotence over all beings. As the essence of all, which all is essentially determination of guṇa-s, the guṇa-s in their entirety are presented to their Lord, the witness of the field, as the field of the seen – this is the meaning. Omniscience means instant discriminative knowledge of the guṇa-s which are the essence of all, whether determined as qualities subsided or uprisen or (as yet) indeterminable. This perfection described is called Beyond Sorrow, and when he has attained it, the omniscient yogin whose taints and bonds …

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Yoga Sutra 3.50 the taints and karmas are destroyed

Sūtra III.50 From indifference to that too, the seeds of imperfection are destroyed, and there is Transcendental Aloneness When, in one who has become like this, the taints and karma-s are destroyed, there arises an idea of his (mind-)sattva which discriminates (as follows): sattva too is consigned to the side of what-is-to-be-escaped, and Puruṣa is unchanging and pure, quite different from sattva. In one who is thus indifferent to that (aforesaid perfection) too, whatever seeds of taint (kleśa) there may be, become like scorched rice-grains, incapable of germination, and they pass away along with the mind. When they have been dissolved, Puruṣa never again experiences the threefold suffering. From indifference to that too, the seeds of imperfection (doṣa) are destroyed, and there is Transcendental Aloneness. When, in one who has become like this omnipotent over all states of being, the taints and karma-s are destroyed, there arises an idea of …

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Yoga Sutra 3.51 divine regions like heaven

Sūtra III.51 No reaction of attachment or pride in case of invitations from rulers of celestial realms, for undesirable consequences follow The realms are divine regions like heaven, and their rulers are gods like Indra. There are invitations by them, such as: ‘Noble Sir, pray take this seat …’ and so on. In such case, let him remember and understand the essential meanness of individual selfhood, and let him not react with attachment or pride. Reaction of attachment or pride will entail undesirable consequences. There are four classes of yogin: (1)the beginner (prathama-kalpika) (2)in the Honeyed stage (madhu-bhūmika) (3)with the light of knowledge (prajña-jyotis) (4)one who has passed beyond all that was to be practised (ati-krānta-bhavanīya) Of these, the first is one who having roused the light of one of the supernormal perceptions of a divine object (I.35) is engaged in practising it; The second has the truth-bearing knowledge (I.48); …

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Yoga Sutra 3.52 knowledge born of discrimination

Sūtra III.52 From saṃyama on the instant, and on the two sequences of instants, comes knowledge-born-of-discrimination Just as the ultimate particle of matter is the atom, so the ultimate particle of time is the instant. Alternatively, an instant is (definable as) the time taken by an atom to pass from one point to the next one. A sequence is continuity of the unbroken flow of the instants in it. There is no real aggregation of the two: instants and their sequence. Hours and days and nights appear from mental aggregation. This time is empty of reality and has been set up by the mind, according to the nature of the words used. To the extravertive view of the people of the world, it merely seems to have reality. But the instant (itself) does have reality, being the support of the sequence. The sequence is essentially a continuity of instants. From …

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Yoga Sutra 3.54 there is clear knowledge of two things

Sūtra III.53 From this (knowledge) there is clear knowledge of two things (seemingly) equivalent because they cannot be distinguished by class, characteristic, or position A difference in class may be the ground of differentiation, as for instance, ‘This one is a cow, this one is a mare’. When the class is the same, a characteristic differentiates them: ‘This cow has black eyes, that cow has lucky markings’. If there are two myrobalan fruits, of the same class and with the same characteristics, then difference in position may differentiate them: ‘This is the front one, that is the one behind.’ But if the fruit in front is moved, while the observer is attending to something else, to the position behind, then since the positions are as they were, he cannot detect rightly which is which; that (detection) would have to be through an infallible knowledge of truth, and so it was …

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Yoga Sutra 3.55 there is Transcendental Aloneness

Sūtra III.55 When the (mind-) sattva is like Puruṣa in purity, there is Transcendental Aloneness. So it is. When the taints of rajas and tamas have been shaken off, the mind-sattva (buddhi-sattva), its seeds of taints scorched, becomes no more than the idea of the apartness of Puruṣa, and then it attains as it were purity like that of Puruṣa. The purity of Puruṣa means absence of experience being imputed to it. In that state there is Transcendental Aloneness, whether he has acquired the divine powers or has not, whether he is possessor of Knowledge-born-of-discrimination or he is not. For when the seeds of taints have been scorched, there is no dependence at all on any further knowledge. Through the purification of the sattva, the power and knowledge arising from samādhi-s are indeed attained, but the highest truth is this: by Knowledge, failure-to-see comes to an end, and when that …

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Shankara on the Yoga Sutras Fourth Part: Transcendental Aloneness

Fourth Part: Transcendental Aloneness (Śaṅkara vivaraṇa:) In the First Part the main teaching was samādhi, and in the Second, the means to it were set out. In the Third Part were listed the forms of knowledge and power which are side-effects of the performance of the yoga methods, whose aim (however) is right vision (samyagdarśana), and they were disposed of with the comment of Jaigīṣavya: ‘All that, is nothing but pain.’ It was said (II.25) that escape from pain is absolute disjunction from guṇa-s. So it has just been declared: ‘From indifference to that too, the seeds of imperfection are destroyed, and there is Transcendental Aloneness’ (kaivalya) (III.50), and whether he has attained Knowledge-of-the-difference or has not attained Knowledge-of-the-difference, ‘When the purity of mind-sattva and of Puruṣa is the same, there is Aloneness’ (III.55). Now, that kaivalya has to be determined by refuting objections, and so this Part, on Transcendental …

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Yoga Sutra 4.01 Perfections siddhi arise

Sūtra IV.1 Perfections (siddhi) arise from birth or from drugs or from mantra-s or from tapas or from samādhi The perfections from birth are (enjoyed) in a different body. From drugs – such as an elixir of the demon realms; by mantra-s are attained levitation, the power of becoming minute and the other (seven); by tapas (are attained) such abilities as taking on any form, and going anywhere at will. The perfections from samādhi have been described. The perfections from birth are in a different body, being attainment of another body in heaven or some similar region, by yoga or by other means. From drugs – such as an elixir of the demon realms: here the original body is not discarded, but by taking drugs like soma or the amalaka plant (some perfection is attained), by mantra-s being murmured are attained levitation, etc.; by tapas (are attained) such abilities as …

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Yoga Sutra 4.02 the transformation into another life

Sūtra IV.2 The transformation into another life is implemented by prakṛti The change of body and senses into another life, when they are transformed into the other life, is implemented by their prakṛti-natures. With the disappearance of the earlier transformation, the corresponding rise of the later transformation comes about by an integrating pervasion of the new parts. With the disappearance of the earlier transformation, of the previous specific causal condition as established, the corresponding rise of the later transformation comes about by an integrating pervasion of the new parts. How so? Because from a cause of light import, there cannot come about a result of great import: from a raw lump of iron weighing 10 pala-s, can an 80–pala spearhead be produced? The prakṛti-natures of the body and senses promote their respective forms, by implementing them in accordance with the motivating cause, of righteousness, etc. The prakṛti-natures of the body …

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Yoga Sutra 4.03 a breach in the retaining barrier of the natures

Sūtra IV.3 That cause is not the impelling drive itself, but it makes a breach in the retaining barrier of the natures, as does a farmer (for irrigation) Righteousness, etc., though cause, cannot be the impelling drive of the natures. What happens, then? It makes a breach in the retaining barrier as does a farmer. The farmer, to irrigate a terraced field by flooding it with water from another (higher) field, does not take the water in his cupped hands, but makes a breach in its retaining barrier; when that is breached, the water pours into the lower field of itself. Similarly, righteousness breaches unrighteousness, the retaining barrier of the natures. When it is breached, the natures flow out into their respective forms. Righteousness, etc., though cause, cannot be the impelling drive of the natures. A cause cannot be powered, in a reversal of the cause-effect relation, by an effect …

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Yoga Sutra 4.04 the minds are projected from bare I-am-ness

Sūtra IV.4 The minds are projected from bare I-am-ness Taking up this I-am-ness as the cause of the minds, he makes minds for the projections. Thus they have each a mind. The minds are projected from bare I-am-ness (asmitā). Taking up this I-am-ness the I-notion (ahaṅkāra) he the yogin makes minds for the projections – projected minds, new, not formed by nature, and so independent of anyone. The word ‘mind’ is used as the example; senses and so on are also projected out of I-am-ness alone. Thus they have each a mind and senses. Without mind and senses, a body would be almost a corpse, and meaningless. With just a single mind, there is no capacity for existence of auxiliary and principal, or differences in activity. But with the power, the creation of many bodies becomes possible to an individual consciousness (kṣetrajña). Difference in the instruments is needed for different …

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Yoga Sutra 4.05 it is the one mind that impels the several minds

Sūtra IV.5 In the variety of activities, it is the one mind that impels the several minds Though there is variety in their activities, it is one mind that impels all the minds which it has projected. From it come the differences in activity. In the variety of activities, it is the one mind that impels the several minds. Though there is variety in their activities, it is one mind that impels all the minds which it has projected, as it were superintending the results in each different body. And that complies with the will of the yogin. The other projected minds with their many different activities are obedient to the controller mind. From it, their bare activities are supervised, and further, the differences in activity, like the different activities which arise from the fact of one’s being kind. So it is right that the activities of the projected minds …

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Yoga Sutra 4.06 the mind whose perfections arise out of meditation

Sūtra IV.6 Of those (minds with perfections), the mind whose perfections arise out of meditation (dhyāna) has no karma-stock A mind is endowed with perfections in one of the five ways. Of those, only the mind whose perfections arise out of meditation has no karma-stock. Only of this one is there no such stock, no functioning of passion and the rest, and so there is no connection with good or ill, because the taints are eliminated from that yogin. Of those (minds with perfections) the mind whose perfections arise out of meditation (dhyāna) has no karma-stock. A mind is endowed with perfection in one of the five ways: by birth, drugs, mantra, tapas or samādhi. Of those among those, it is only the mind whose perfections arise out of meditation that has no karma-stock. It is free from any stock of taint or karma. Only of this one is there …

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Yoga Sutra 4.07 the karma of the yogin is neither white nor black

Sūtra IV.7 The karma of the yogin is neither white nor black; of the others, it is of three kinds (Opponent) Why is it only for yogins that there is no karma-stock, while there is for others? (Answer) Because The karma of the yogin is thus neither white nor black; of the others, it is of three kinds. This sūtra is a general statement covering the perfect and the imperfect. (Opponent) But the previous sūtra too was just a general statement. (Answer) No, because it had a purpose, namely to praise the perfections arising from samādhi; and praise of samādhi-perfections is not a general statement. On the contrary, through the reference there to meditation practice giving siddhi-perfections (parisankhyāna), it related to a special field; it was mentioned along with the undesirability of the four kinds of similar siddhi-perfections arising from birth, etc., so it is a praise of perfections arising …

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Yoga Sutra 4.08 the cessation of karma and of samskara groups

Sūtra IV.8 Therefore their consequent manifestation is of those saṃskāra-groups (vāsanā) that are compatible with it Aloneness has been praised, and now the taints and karmas and saṃskāra-groups (vāsanā), which are causes of the obstructions to it, have to be set out. But the working of the taints, their antagonist, and their cessation, have already been described in detail. The next sūtra-s therefore are begun in order to explain similarly in detail the workings, the states, the antagonists and the cessation, of karma and of saṃskāra-groups, because it is when they cease that Aloneness is attained, and not otherwise. Therefore, because there are the three kinds of result of the karmas, their consequent manifestation is of those saṃskāra-groups alone that are compatible with it. The fruition is like whatever kind of karma caused it; it is only saṃskāra-groups consonant with it that follow from the karma-fruition. The manifestation is of …

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Yoga Sutra 4.09 there is sameness of form of memory and saṃskaras

Sūtra IV.9 Because there is sameness of form of memory and saṃskāra-s, there is consequent succession between them, even though separated by class and place and time Fruition of karma in cat birth, for instance, is brought about by its own spontaneous drive, even if separated by a hundred classes or a hundred distances or a thousand aeons. Further, when the spontaneous drives towards actualization arise, very quickly they are made manifest, along with the saṃskāra-groups laid down for fruition as a cat, etc. Why? Because though they may be remote, a manifesting karma of the like kind has become an operative cause for them. So there is consequent succession. Fruition of karma in cat birth, for instance, is brought about by its own spontaneous manifesting drive, its own manifesting capacity, even if separated by a hundred classes or a hundred distances or a thousand aeons. (Opponent) The time-separation has …

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Sutra 4.10 hope of self-preservation

Sūtra IV.10 They are beginningless, because hope is eternal This hope of self-preservation is seen in all, in such forms as ‘May death not come’ or ‘May I survive’. It is not something spontaneous. Why not? How is it that there is fear of death, caused by memory of its hatefulness or of its pain, in a new-born animal which can never have had any experience of death? What is spontaneous would not need a cause. They are beginningless, because hope is eternal. This hope of self-preservation is seen in all, in such forms as ‘May death not come’ or ‘May I survive’. It is not something spontaneous, arising and developing of its own accord. Why not? How is it that there is fear of death, caused by memory of its hatefulness or of its pain, in a new-born animal which can never have had any experience of death? If …

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Yoga Sutra 4.11 focal-point is resolved into cause and effect

Sūtra IV.11 They are held together by cause-effect-repository-focal-point. When these cease, they too cease The compound ‘cause-effect-repository-focal-point’ is resolved into cause and effect and repository and focal-point. Since the saṃskāra-groups are held together by these, namely bound together by them, when the causes and the rest cease, the saṃskāra-groups also will cease along with them. And thereby the destruction of the saṃskāra-groups is effected. As to cause: from righteousness, pleasure; following on (anuśayī) pleasure, desire. From unrighteousness, pain; following on pain, hate. From that, effort. Excited by that effort of speech and of body, he helps some and injures others. Then again from this, righteousness and unrighteousness. In this way there is a ceaselessly impelled revolving of this six-spoked wheel of saṃsāra. Ignorance is its driver. That Ignorance is the root of all taints. What is this cause? He explains: first of all, righteousness belongs to minds that are subject …

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Yoga Sutra 4.12 what are past and future do actually exist

Sūtra IV.12 What are past and future do actually exist, but there is difference of time-phase in their dharma-s So it is, but the commentator does not simply reiterate this conclusion, for he goes on to explain that when it was said that ‘when the causes are nonexistent the saṃskāra-groups also are non-existent’, it is not an absolute non-existence. What is it then? Of the non-existent there is no coming into being; and of the existent there is no destruction. As actual things inasmuch as they are facts, they will continue to be; how should the saṃskāra-groups cease to exist? The words allow some choice in interpretation, and the sense here is, that the saṃskāra-groups do not absolutely cease to be: they do actually exist, but as things in the past. That whose manifestation is yet to come is future; that whose manifestation came (and went) is past; when a …

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Yoga Sutra 4.13 they consist of the gunas

Sūtra IV.13 They are manifest or subtle, and consist of the guṇa-s These three time-phases are present when of manifest nature. Past and future are essentially subtle, being the six Unparticularized. All this is, from the highest point of view, simply to be distinguished as a conglomerate of the guṇa-s, and so it says in the holy classic: The ultimate form of the guṇa-s is not within the range of perception; What can be perceived of it is but slight, like māyā. They are manifest or subtle, and consist of the guṇa-s. These three time-phases coming up in the three forms of past, future and present, are present coming up in the present mode when of manifest nature. Their essence is, that they have become objects of public awareness. Past and future are essentially subtle and not objects of public awareness, being of the nature of the six Unparticularized (II. …

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Yoga Sutra 4.14 a thing is what it is by the fact of a unitary change

Sūtra IV.14 A thing is what it is by the fact of a unitary change The guṇa-s are ever tending towards light, activity, and stasis respectively. When they have the nature of perception, a unitary change as an instrument (of perception) is the sense-organ of hearing. Then a unitary change in their nature as object is a sound, and that is the perceived sound. Then a unitary change of sounds and other objects of a class compatible with that form is an ultimate atom of earth, with the subtle element as component. Of these (atoms) are the unitary changes called earth, cow, tree, mountain and so on. The guṇa-s are ever tending towards light, activity, and stasis respectively. When they have the nature of perception from predominance of light, essential awareness grounded in I-am-ness, a unitary change as an instrument (of perception) is the sense-organ of hearing, just as light …

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Yoga Sutra 4.15 since there is difference of the minds the two must be distinct categories

Sūtra IV.15 Since there is difference of the minds, while the object is the same, the two must be distinct categories A single thing becomes an object of many minds, to which it is common. It is not dependent on any one mind, nor determined by a number of minds. The thing stands by itself. How so? The object is the same: there is difference of the minds. Though the thing be the same, when the mind regarding it looks to righteousness, from that very thing there is knowledge of happiness. From that very thing, when the mind looks to unrighteousness, it is knowledge of pain. Similarly, looking to ignorance, it is delusive knowledge. From that very thing, looking to right knowledge, there comes unbiased knowledge. Therefore, object and knowledge are distinct categories, because they are different as object known and the knowledge of it; there is not even a …

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Yoga Sutra 4.16 it is not dependent on a single mind

Sūtra IV.16 It is not dependent on a single mind, for when it was not giving rise to valid cognition in that mind, what would it be? If the thing were dependent on a single mind, when that mind was not focused on it, or was inhibited, the thing would not be in contact with it and would not be an object to any other mind either. So that thing would not produce any valid cognition, and would be essentially unknown. What would it be at that time? Again, why would it rise again to be connected with that mind? (Further) its parts which were not being cognized, would not exist. As the back would not exist, the front ought not to exist either. It is not dependent on a single mind, for when it was not giving rise to valid cognition in that mind, what would it be? To …

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Yoga Sutra 4.17 according to whether the mind is coloured by it, a thing is known or unknown

Sūtra IV.17 According to whether the mind is coloured by it, a thing is known or unknown According to whether that object causes a colouring of the mind corresponding to its existence, the thing is known or unknown. By whatever thing mind is coloured, that thing is known; by whatever thing it is not so coloured, that is unknown. And this colouring corresponds to a change of the mind. For mind is changed into the outer form when conjoined with that, through the channel of the senses. As to what causes the change, he says: The objects are comparable to a magnet, and the mind corresponds to iron. The object draws to itself and colours the mind. By whatever object the mind is coloured, that object is known; furthermore, another is unknown. From the fact that its objects have the character of being known and also not known, the mind …

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Yoga Sutra 4.18 to the Lord mental processes are always known.

Sūtra IV.18 To Him, the Lord, the mental processes are always known, from the fact of the unchangeability of Puruṣa To Him, the Lord, Puruṣa, the mental processes are always known. There is direct perception of them, and it is unquestionable that they are always known as objects. Again, the mental processes, as directly perceivable, are in fact remembered as having been known directly, like a jar, and not on the basis of authority or of inference. In the same way their form is known exactly, and they are never objects of uncertainty. If the mental process were never directly perceived, then like outer objects, some of them would appear uncertain at some time. But never are any of them found to be in the realm of uncertainty. (Opponent) Still, if an object is known at any time at all, it is said to be known. (Answer) No mental process …

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Yoga Sutra 4.19 the mind is not self-illumining

Sūtra IV.19 It (mind) is not self-illumining, because it is itself something perceived The other senses, and sound and so on, are not self-illumining. Just so the mind too is to be taken. It is not self-illumining, because it is itself something perceived. The other senses like the ear, and their objects sound and so on are not self-illumining. Neither the senses nor again their objects like sound are self-illumining, because they are themselves things perceived. Just so the mind (manas) too is to be taken: the mind (citta) is to be understood as not self-illumining, because it is something perceived. (Opponent) Let it be like fire, which is self-illumining and also illumines objects. Perceivables like jars do indeed look to an outside illumination to be revealed as they are, but not so a light. As a light illumines itself and illumines objects, so let mind too be an illuminer …

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Yoga Sutra 4.20 it takes some instants to discriminate objects,

Sūtra IV.20 They cannot both be clearly ascertained at the same time They cannot both be clearly ascertained at the same time, for it takes some instants to discriminate objects, and it is not reasonable that it should then be discriminating oneself. Then again, when it clearly ascertains oneself, it is not then turned to objects, because it would take several instants to discriminate the self. (Opponent) There is just a single discrimination – of both. (Answer) No, because a discrimination has no parts. A mental operation which has no parts cannot reasonably illumine a number of things, as a light does. The light has different parts (rays), and so it can light up a number of things. But even our opponents do not think that knowledge has parts. Further, acceptance that a single knowledge in a single instant should determine both, entails differentiation of action and agency. The determination …

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Yoga Sutra 4.21 further and yet further ideas will be required.

Sūtra IV.21 If it is to be seen by another idea, further and yet further ideas will be required. And there will be confusion of memories If the idea is to be seen by another idea, then by whom is that idea of the idea known? It would have to be known by another, and that too by yet another, endlessly. If it is to be seen by another idea, further and yet further ideas will be required. And there will be confusion of memories. If the idea the earlier idea which has perished of itself is to be seen by another idea which has arisen immediately afterwards in the stream of instants, then by whom is that idea of the idea known? The idea which knows the jar is here called the ‘idea’, and the idea for which it is itself an object is the ‘idea of the idea’. …

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Yoga Sutra 4.22 awareness of the idea of the self

Sūtra IV.22 In assumption of its (the mind’s) form on the part of the unmoving consciousness, is awareness of the idea of the self In when there is assumption of its (the mind’s) form on the part of the unmoving consciousness, there is comes to be awareness of the idea of the self. The consciousness is awareness, Puruṣa, which as it never changes, is unmoving. There is assumption on the part of the consciousness, though unmoving, of its form. It refers back to the familiar mind (citta), and assumption of its form means assumption of the form of that mind. In the assumption of its form by that consciousness, there comes to be awareness of the idea of the self (sva). In the mind, there comes about a perception of the notion (bauddha-pratyaya) of the self. It is for this that the mind (buddhi) transforms itself into notions of objects …

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Yoga Sutra 4.23 Mind, coloured by Seer and seen, has the various purposes

Sūtra IV.23 Mind, coloured by Seer and seen, has the various purposes Mind (citta) is coloured by an object cognizable to the mind, and by the fact of being (itself) an object, it is bound up with the subject, Puruṣa, by a mental function of belonging (to Him). It is this very mind alone that is coloured by the Seer and the seen. It assumes the appearance of object and subject, the unconscious becoming conscious. The mind, being insentient, essentially an object – conscious as it were, on the analogy of the crystal – is said to comprehend everything. By that assumption of form by the mind, some have been misled into thinking: it is only mind which is conscious. Others hold that all this is mind alone, and that this world with its cows and jars and so on does not exist as self-sufficient. They are pathetic. Why? The …

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Yoga Sutra 4.24 it must exist for the purposes of another, because it is a construct

Sūtra IV.24 Though it is a mélange of countless saṃskāra-groups, it must exist for the purposes of another, because it is a construct Though it is a mélange of countless saṃskāra-groups, it must exist for the purposes of another, namely experience or release of that other, like a house. For no construct exists as an end in itself The mind, being a construct – (what it effects) is done not for itself. For a happy mind is not for the purpose of happiness itself Nor is a mind with knowledge simply for the purpose of knowledge. Both are for the purposes of another. Though it is a mélange of countless saṃskāra-groups (vāsanā), it must exist for the purposes of another, because it is a construct. Even though that very mind is a mélange, implying that it causes delusion, of countless saṃskāra-groups laid down from time without beginning, still it recognizably …

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Yoga Sutra 4.25 cessation of meditation on his own being

Sūtra IV.25 For him who sees that One apart, cessation of meditation on his own being For him who sees that One apart, cessation of meditation on his own being. Puruṣa is apart (viśeṣa), not in the same category as manifest or unmanifest or universal, and he who sees that one apart is he whose vision always distinguishes Him clearly from manifest or unmanifest or universal. For him, once he has brought about the circumstances for release through right vision, the meditation on his own being ceases. How is it known when there is this meditation on his own being? He replies: As by the sprouting forth of grass in the rainy season, the actual existence of seed is inferred, so when someone is seen with a thrill, or perhaps tears, of joy, on hearing about the path to release, it is inferred that some good karma has been performed …

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Yoga Sutra 4.26 the mind is inclined to discrimination

Sūtra IV.26 Then the mind is inclined to discrimination, and is borne on towards Aloneness His mind, that was inclined to objects, borne on to Ignorance, now in his case has changed, and is borne on to Aloneness. And when the vision of the One apart has arisen, Then the mind is inclined to discrimination (viveka) and is borne on towards Aloneness (kaivalya). His mind that was inclined to objects, on the slope towards objects borne on to Ignorance, taking its stand on Ignorance and turned to saṃsāra, now in his case, namely when there is vision of the One apart, has changed and is borne on to Aloneness, and is inclined to discrimination. So it is clear that a counter-current to the former stream is now flowing.  

Yoga Sutra 4.27 ideas arise from samaskaras

Sūtra IV.27 At intervals in it, other ideas arise from saṃskāra-s His mind is being borne on towards discrimination, carried along on the current towards Knowledge-of the-difference. But at intervals, other ideas arise, in the form ‘I am’ or ‘It is mine’. From where? From previous saṃskāra-s, whose seed-power is fading away. At intervals in it, other ideas arise from saṃskāra-s. His mind his consciousness of Puruṣa the Knower is being borne on towards discrimination further and further moving down towards discrimination, carried along on the current towards Knowledge-of-the-difference (viveka-khyāti), impelled by the stream towards the difference between Puruṣa and mind-sattva. But at intervals, in gaps of the current of discriminative ideas, other ideas of delusive character arise, in the form ‘I am’ or ‘It is mine’. From where do they come? From previous saṃskāra-s of an opposite kind laid down previously, whose seed-power in the form of taints, etc. …

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Yoga Sutra 4.28 the escape is like that described in the case of the taints

Sūtra IV.28 The escape from these is like that described in the case of the taints As the taints, reduced to scorched seeds, cannot germinate, so the previous saṃskāra-s, having become seeds scorched by the fire of knowledge, cannot bring forth ideas – this is the meaning. The escape from these is like that described in the case of the taints. As the taints, reduced to scorched seeds, cannot germinate as was explained here previously (sūtra II.10): ‘in their subtle state, they are to be got rid of by dissolution in their source’, so the previous saṃskāra-s laid down by ideas in the form ‘I am’ and ‘It is mine’, having become seeds scorched by the fire of knowledge (jñāna) become unable to sprout forth, like scorched rice grains, cannot bring forth ideas – this is the meaning. (Opponent) But saṃskāra-s of knowledge (jñāna) are not opponents (i.e. taints), so …

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Yoga Sutra 4.29 the samadhi called Raincloud of Dharma

Sūtra IV.29 For one who is through and through a man of discriminative knowledge, but is not grasping over his meditation practice, there comes about the samādhi called Raincloud of Dharma This Brahmin is not grasping over his meditation, and does not seek for anything even from that. Detached even from that, through and through he is a man of discriminative Knowledge alone. Because the saṃskāra-seed of taint is destroyed, for him no other ideas are created. Then, for that one, there comes about the samādhi called the Raincloud of Dharma. When a Brahmin has a mind moving towards Knowledge-of-the-difference, For one, who is through and through a man of discriminative knowledge but is not grasping over his meditation practice (prasaṅkhyāna), there comes about the samādhi called Raincloud of Dharma. This Brahmin is not grasping over, not seeking profit from his meditation, which is practice of discriminative vision, and does …

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